We often define failure as the material reaching the yield or ultimate tensile strength. But there is another kind of failure that we haven’t considered; one where the material fails below the yield stress: *buckling*.

In this chapter we’ll be looking at the following aspects of buckling:

- C5.1 Euler’s Buckling Formula - calculating the critical load before buckling
- C5.2 Secant Formula - used to determine the maximum deflection and stress under a buckling load

We often define failure as the material reaching the yield or ultimate tensile strength. But there is another kind of failure that we haven’t considered; one where the material fails below the yield stress: *buckling*.

In this chapter we’ll be looking at the following aspects of buckling:

- C5.1 Euler’s Buckling Formula - calculating the critical load before buckling
- C5.2 Secant Formula - used to determine the maximum deflection and stress under a buckling load